S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

  • Any industry can be viewed as a system, with inputs, throughputs (or processes), outputs and feedback.
  • A very good example of an industrial system is the car manufacturing industry, like the Rover factory at Longbridge in Birmingham.

Industry can be classified using a four-way division:

  1. Primary industries produce raw materials.
  2. Secondary industries are manufacturing industries.
  3. Teritary industries provide services.
  4. Quaternary industries are involved in research and development.

You can use the percentage of people working in each sector to help describe how developed a country is. This is called the Employment structure.

The more developed a country becomes the more it will rely on secondary and, in particular, tertiary industries.

  • Location factors are easily divided into two sections: Physical factors and Socio-economic (human) factors.
  • Physical factors include accessibility, climate, land, power and raw materials.
  • Socio-economic factors include capital, communications, government policy, labour supply and markets.
  • A general rule is that the physical factors were the primary influence over the location of the old industries in Britain, whilst the economic ones are increasingly important in industrial location now.
  • South Wales has experienced both growth and decline as an industrial area. In 1860 there were over 30 iron works in the valleys of South Wales. By the 1990's only two steelworks were left in South Wales.
  • South Wales is experiencing something of a recovery again, thanks to being at one end of the M4 Corridor.
  • New industrial regions in Britain have tended to grow up along main communication routes. These industries are described as being footloose.
  • The best example of this is the "Sunrise Strip", which takes in the area around motorways such as the M11, M23, M3 and, most importantly, the M4.
  • Science Parks are areas of industry that have grown up on Greenfield sites outside of major cities around the world.
  • They usually have very close links to a major research institution, probably a university.
  • In Britain a very good example is the Cambridge Science Park.
  • The Ruhr Valley is the industrial heartland of Europe.
  • The region is served by two of Europe's largest rivers, the Ruhr and the Rhine.
  • Its central location makes it a perfect place for industry, as export to the whole of Europe is very easy.
  • Over the past half century the car manufacture industry has also grown massively in the area, as well as food processing and oil refining.
  • There are a number of countries around the world that can be accurately described as Newly Industrialised Countries (NIC's).
  • There are three stages to the development of an NIC: Traditional Society, Import substitution industry, and export orientated industry.
  • NIC's include South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
  • Multi-national or Trans-national companies are ones which locate their factories throughout the world.
  • The headquarters of the company remains in its original country, usually one of the most developed countries in the world.
  • The companies bring much needed money into the country.
  • They create jobs for the local population.
  • The wages paid to local workers are often low.