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Pronouns are words that replace nouns - they are little words such as 'she', 'he', 'you', etc. Just like 'der', 'ein', etc. They change according to which case they are in. Look at 'Use of Cases' if you are unsure about which case to use.

Here is a list of them:

English: Nominative: Accusative: Dative:
I / me ich mich mir
You (sing) du dich dir
He / him / it er ihn ihm
She / her / it sie sie ihr
It es es ihm
We / us wir uns uns
You (plural) ihr euch euch
They / them sie sie ihnen
You (polite) Sie Sie Ihnen
Who wer wen wem

For example:

Subject pronoun (nominative): Ich sehe die Dame.

Object pronoun (accusative): Ich sehe sie.

Indirect object pronoun (dative): Ich gebe ihr das Geschenk.

If you want to say 'it' in German, you can only use 'es' if you are talking about a neutral noun. If something is masculine, you would use er / ihn / ihm depending on the context.

For example: If you had been talking about a table (Tisch) and then wanted to say, "It is big", you would say, "Er ist gross".

If something is feminine, you would use sie / sie / ihr, depending on the context.

If you want to use a pronoun that refers to a person after a preposition, the same rules about which cases to use after which prepositions apply here.

For example: Ist das Geschenk für mich? Was ist mit ihm los?

If you are talking about a thing and not a person, then you should use the words darauf, darin, damit, etc. rather than a pronoun.

For example: Ich freue mich auf den Urlaub. Ich freue mich darauf.

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