S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

Sports injuries occur as either a result of sudden or persistent stress on a particular part of the body with which the body cannot cope or as a result of damage to the body tissues because of long-term stresses placed on particular parts of the body within a sport.


Most injuries are caused through accidents. Tripping, slipping, being hit with and bumping into are all routes to injury.

Injuries may also occur because of the nature of the sport such as:

  1. In contact sports where making contact in certain sports is part of the game.

  2. Foul play where players can be injured in games when the rules are broken.

  3. Rules are very often there to prevent injury.

  4. Overuse of body parts can cause damage to muscles, tendons, ligaments and bones.

  5. Poor, incorrect or ill fitting equipment.

There are many types of sporting injuries that can often be treated quickly and effectively.


A common treatment for many soft tissue injuries is the RICE method.

R - Rest; continued use of the damaged muscle will cause even more damage and make the recovery time longer

I - Ice applied will reduce swelling and pain

C - Compressing the area will provide support

E - Elevating the part of the body injured will decrease the circulation and enable blood and other fluids that cause swelling to be removed from the injured area.

Skin injuries, also known as abrasions, may be painful but not dangerous.


Assess the damage and in most cases clean and dress.

Larger and deeper cuts may need treatment at a hospital where stitching of the injury may be required. When blood is strongly pumping out of a cut, it is important that the flow of blood is stopped and medical help found.

Muscles can be damaged internally by applying too much force when moving the body or an external object.


Carryout RICE procedure. Damaged muscle repairs itself, usually within seven days.

Ligaments hold joints together and tendons attach muscles to bones and both can be injured when excessive force is applied to them.


RICE can be used for minor injuries of both tendons and ligaments.

Dislocation is the joint of a limb breaking apart soft tissue may also be damaged.


Medical treatment is needed for this injury.

Bones, because of their rigid structure can be broken.

There are different types of fracture:

Simple fractures - the bone is broken cleanly and does not pierce the skin

Compound fractures - parts if the bone come through the surface of the skin

Greenstick fractures - this often occurs in young children where the bones are soft and do not break cleanly


If a fracture is suspected, the person should be kept warm and comfortable until medical help arrives.

These can range from cuts and bruises to more serious skull fractures.


Medical help must be sought for all head injuries.

Other Conditions

In sports, certain conditions can occur which are not classified as injuries but still need to be attended to;

  1. Hyperventilation

  2. Shock

  3. Hypothermia

  4. Hyperthermia and heat stroke

  5. Exhaustion

  6. Asthma attack

Being able to give treatment in such an emergency could save the persons life or prevent further damage.

One system is to follow the DRABC routine.

The DRABC Routine:

Danger: Assess the danger to the casualty and to yourself.

Response: Check if the casualty is conscious, ask name and gently shake.

Airway: Loosen tight clothing. Put the casualty into the recovery position.

Breathing: Check: is casualty breathing? Is the chest rising and falling? Are there breathing sounds?

Circulation: Check for a pulse at the neck.

Hygiene is an important part of maintaining good health. There are two important factors that are important to everyone and particularly people who take part in sport.

Keeping the Body Clean


Keeping the skin clean is not only an important way of resisting disease and infection but also in preventing body odour.


Hair should be washed regularly and long hair tied back so as not to restrict vision, or get pulled.


Should be kept clean and short.


Should be brushed regularly after eating.

In many sports gum shields are often worn to protect teeth.


Must be kept healthy.

Correct fitting footwear is important for sport and activity.

There are two common infections of the feet:

  1. Athlete's foot

    It is easily spread to other people by contact from floors or shared towels.

  2. Verrucas are warts on the feet.

    They spread easily through a virus, are difficult to get rid of and are painful.

Keeping feet clean and drying them well helps to minimise the chance of contracting these diseases.

Clothing and Equipment

Clothing should be washed regularly as it absorbs body sweat and bacteria from the skin.

Equipment should be cleaned and maintained.

Look after your equipment and your equipment will look after you.