S-Cool Revision Summary

S-Cool Revision Summary

If physical fitness and skills are to be maintained or improved, then training has to take place.

There are four recognised principles that have to be applied to training schedules if training is to be effective.


Different sports make different demands of the performer and so the training should take into account those demands.


Overloading body systems with higher work rates and increased loads causes the body to respond to these extra demands by improving its performance.

There are three ways in which overload can be attained:

  1. Frequency is the number of times training occurs.

  2. Raising the workload increases intensity.

  3. Duration, or how long training takes place, is determined by the activity and the fitness of the performer.


Although overload is necessary to improve physical fitness and skills level, this overload has to be progressive.

The chances are that the performer will fail in the attempt and become de-motivated or injure them self in the attempt.


This is the reverse of progression.

Once training and performances are reduced, the body naturally adapts to new circumstances.

Different sports require different training methods to meet the demands of the sport.

Speed Training

The speed needed in the majority of sports activities tends to be over short distances.


The heart walls grow stronger and are therefore more able to pump blood effectively.

There is a faster dispersal of lactic acid in the muscles, enabling muscle action to continue for a longer time.

Cardiorespiratory Endurance (Stamina)

This is dependent on the aerobic energy system and there are a variety of methods to improve it.

Interval training

This is a combination of periods of high intensity work and low intensity work.

Interval training needs to be carefully planned, as the duration, intensity of work and rest periods need to be carefully matched to the level of fitness of the athlete.

Continuous Training

Continuous training is training without a rest and can only be done at moderate intensity. Heart rate and breathing rate are maintained at a high level over a sustained period of time. Activity of the correct intensity needs to be maintained for at least 15 minutes.

Fartlek ('speed play') Training

Fartlek is a Swedish word that means 'speed play' and is based on Swedish training methods.

Both aerobics and anaerobic energy systems can be trained as the athlete pushes through the anaerobic threshold.

The anaerobic threshold is the point at which the energy demands of the body exceed that available using the aerobic system and therefore the body has to begin using the anaerobic energy system.

Effects of Cardiorespiratory Training

  1. The heart becomes more efficient.

  2. Recovery after exercise becomes quicker.

  3. Blood volume, red cells and haemoglobin increase.

  4. Arteries grow larger.

  5. Diaphragm grows stronger.

  6. Lungs become more expandable increasing in volume.

Strength Training

Dynamic, explosive and static strength are all dependent on the force exerted by the muscles. Weight or resistance training is an effective way to improve muscular strength.

The general principles of weight training are:

  1. A light weight moved many times improves muscular endurance

  2. A medium weight moved very fast will improve explosive strength

  3. And a heavy weight moved a few times will improve static strength.

Repetitions ('reps') and Sets

When planning a resistance-training programme, the number of repetitions and sets must be determined.

  1. Repetitions are the number of times an exercise is repeated.

  2. Sets are the number of times an activity is taken in a training session.

Training Different Muscle actions

The three types of muscle action require special weight training programmes.

Isometric training can be practised with heavy, immovable weights.

Isokinetic training requires the use of weights that provide resistance through the full range of movement.

Isotonic training involves the same resistance or weight as the muscle both shortens (concentric contraction) and lengthens (eccentric contraction).


An effective way of improving and developing explosive strength are plyometrics.

It involves rapidly stretching a muscle and using the energy generated in the elastic part of the muscle.

Plyometrics can improve endurance strength, explosive strength and also develop static strength as muscles increase in size, as fibres grow thicker.

Flexibility ('suppleness') Training

Maintaining and improving flexibility is an essential part of physical and there are four widely recognised methods of improving flexibility.

Static Stretching

A muscle is held in a stretched position for a short time.

Passive Stretching

An external force is applied to a limb or joint and held for a number of seconds.

Active Stretching

The limbs and the body are moved vigorously, stretching the appropriate muscles.

Proprioceptor Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)

This is a method of tricking the receptor organs in the muscles and joints allowing the limbs to increase their range of movement.

Effects of Flexibility Training

The muscles and tendons can be stretched more easily, thus increasing the range of movement at the joint. The result of this is a less likely chance of injury and improved execution of skills.

Agility Training

Strength, speed and balance are important elements of agility and any training of these will result in improved agility.

Effects of Training

Body movements can be made quicker. More unpredictable movements can be made to beat an opponent.

Balance Training

Balance requires delicate control and good static strength in relation to body weight.

There are two types of balances, static balances, which are positions of stillness and dynamic balances, which are maintained while the athlete is moving.

Effects of Training

Static balance - fine muscle control and stability balance.

Dynamic balance - better control in more extreme conditions.

Co-ordination Training

Practice is the best form of training co-ordination and specific practice for individual sports.

Effects of Training

Movements appear smooth and flowing. Movements become more effective.

Reaction Training

It is highly unlikely that reaction times can be improved, however response time can be improved.

Response time is the total time taken to complete a response to a given stimulus.

Response time = reaction time + movement time.

Response time can only improve with experience where situations become more familiar and the athletes are able to think and act more quickly to a given situation.

Effects of Training

Faster muscle responses. There are fewer movement errors. There is improved decision making in choice reaction situations - giving improved performance.

Training for Timing

Training to improve timing involves repetition of activities until speed and distance have been learned.

All training sessions, irrespective of the sport or activity, tend to follow the same patterns.

Training programmes are carefully designed to ensure the athlete reaches their peak performance in time for a major event such as the Olympic games.

Training Programmes

Training programmes can be planned over a one to two year period.

Irrespective of the sport, planning a programme involves the use of the FITT principles.

Frequency - Training sessions should be sufficient to bring about improvements, but there should also be enough recovery time, particularly in physically intense activities.

Intensity - Training must be set at a sufficient level to bring about changes in the body systems.

Time - Training time for each session should be judged in accordance with fitness levels. For the same intensity, this should be gradually increased (See Principles of Training - Progression) as cardiorespiratory and muscular endurance increases.

Type - The type of training activities included in the training programme must be the same as, or closely associated with, the particular sport or activity.

A Typical Training Session

There are clear allocations of time during a training session that consist of warm up, fitness session, skills session which could involve small-sided games and cool down.

Warm Up

The body needs to be correctly prepared for any activity.

Fitness Session

The amount of fitness and its importance depends on the activity and the level at which the activity is been played be it local level, regional level, national level, etc.

Skills Session

The skills sessions have to be a closely related to the 'real' situation as possible so that transfer from practice to 'real' is easily accomplished.

Cool Down

This part of the training session allows the body to start its recovery process by starting to remove the lactate build-up.

Circuit Training

There are many advantages to using circuit training as part of a training programme. Some of these advantages include improving fitness levels of a large number of people, it can be accomplished in a relatively small space and it requires a minimum amount of equipment as the performers body provides the 'weight'.

Circuit Training Design

When designing a circuit there are several things that have to be considered a number of considerations have to be made some of these include the purpose of the circuit, the types of activities to achieve the purpose and the number of stations in the circuit.

Intensity and Overload

For any training session to be effective, it should be of high enough intensity to overload the body systems of an individual and individual fitness levels must be taken into account. This will require testing and re-testing at future intervals.

Skills Circuits

Circuit training in games such as rugby, football, netball and hockey can easily be planned but usually require more space than fitness circuits.

Basic skills such as passing, dribbling and shooting are performed at various stations.